**Design of Sewers**

The hydraulic design of sewers and drains, which means finding out their sections and gradients, is generally carried out on the same lines as that of the water supply pipes. However, there are two major differences between characteristics of flows in sewers and water supply pipes. They are:

The sewage contain particles in suspension, the heavier of which may settle down at the bottom of the sewers, as and when the flow velocity reduces, resulting in the clogging of sewers. To avoid silting of sewers, it is necessary that the sewer pipes be laid at such a gradient, as to generate self cleansing velocities at different possible discharges.

The sewer pipes carry sewage as gravity conduits, and are therefore laid at a continuous gradient in the downward direction upto the outfall point, from where it will be lifted up, treated and disposed of.

Hazen-William's formula

U=0.85 C rH0.63S0.54

Manning's formula

U=1/n rH2/3S1/2

where, U= velocity, m/s; rH= hydraulic radius,m; S= slope, C= Hazen-William's coefficient, and n = Manning's coefficient.

Darcy-Weisbach formula

hL=(fLU2)/(2gd)

**Minimum Velocity**

The flow velocity in the sewers should be such that the suspended materials in sewage do not get silted up; i.e. the velocity should be such as to cause automatic self-cleansing effect. The generation of such a minimum self cleansing velocity in the sewer, atleast once a day, is important, because if certain deposition takes place and is not removed, it will obstruct free flow, causing further deposition and finally leading to the complete blocking of the sewer.

**Maximum Velocity**

The smooth interior surface of a sewer pipe gets scoured due to continuous abrasion caused by the suspended solids present in sewage. It is, therefore, necessary to limit the maximum velocity in the sewer pipe. This limiting or non-scouring velocity will mainly depend upon the material of the sewer.

**Effects of Flow Variation on Velocity in a Sewer**

Due to variation in discharge, the depth of flow varies, and hence the hydraulic mean depth (r) varies. Due to the change in the hydraulic mean depth, the flow velocity (which depends directly on r2/3) gets affected from time to time. It is necessary to check the sewer for maintaining a minimum velocity of about 0.45 m/s at the time of minimum flow (assumed to be 1/3rd of average flow). The designer should also ensure that a velocity of 0.9 m/s is developed atleast at the time of maximum flow and preferably during the average flow periods also. Moreover, care should be taken to see that at the time of maximum flow, the velocity generated does not exceed the scouring value.

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