Wednesday, May 25, 2011

Design of Sewers part 2

Sewer Appurtenances

Sewer appurtenances are the various accessories on the sewerage system and are necessary for the efficient operation of the system. They include man holes, lamp holes, street inlets, catch basins, inverted siphons, and so on.

Man-holes: Man holes are the openings of either circular or rectangular in shape constructed on the alignment of a sewer line to enable a person to enter the sewer for inspection, cleaning and flushing. They serve as ventilators for sewers, by the provisions of perforated man-hole covers. Also they facilitate the laying of sewer lines in convenient length.

Man-holes are provided at all junctions of two or more sewers, whenever diameter of sewer changes, whenever direction of sewer line changes and when sewers of different elevations join together.

Special Man-holes:

Junction chambers: Man-hole constructed at the intersection of two large sewers.

Drop man-hole: When the difference in elevation of the invert levels of the incoming and outgoing sewers of the man-hole is more than 60 cm, the interception is made by dropping the incoming sewer vertically outside and then it is jointed to the man-hole chamber.

Flushing man-holes: They are located at the head of a sewer to flush out the deposits in the sewer with water.

Lamp-holes: Lamp holes are the openings constructed on the straight sewer lines between two man-holes which are far apart and permit the insertion of a lamp into the sewer to find out obstructions if any inside the sewers from the next man-hole.

Street inlets: Street inlets are the openings through which storm water is admitted and conveyed to the storm sewer or combined sewer. The inlets are located by the sides of pavement with maximum spacing of 30 m.

Catch Basins: Catch basins are small settling chambers of diameter 60 - 90 cm and 60 - 75 cm deep, which are constructed below the street inlets. They interrupt the velocity of storm water entering through the inlets and allow grit, sand, debris and so on to settle in the basin, instead of allowing them to enter into the sewers.

Inverted siphons: These are depressed portions of sewers, which flow full under pressure more than the atmospheric pressure due to flow line being below the hydraulic grade line. They are constructed when a sewer crosses a stream or deep cut or road or railway line. To clean the siphon pipe sluice valve is opened, thus increasing the head causing flow. Due to increased velocity deposits of siphon pipe are washed into the sump, from where they are removed.

Pumping of Sewage

Pumping of sewage is required when it is not possible to have a gravitational flow for the entire sewerage project.

Sufficient pumping capacity has to be provided to meet the peak flow, atleast 50% as stand by.

Types of pumps :
Centrifugal pumps either axial, mixed and radial flow.
Pneumatic ejector pumps.

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